MiCA Regulation in Poland: Impact on Stablecoins, Issuers, and Crypto Exchanges

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The Markets in Crypto Assets (MiCA) Regulation represents a significant step in the European Union’s efforts to regulate the burgeoning cryptocurrency market. For entities involved in the issuance and trading of stablecoins, MiCA introduces a comprehensive framework designed to ensure stability, transparency, and investor protection. This article delves into how MiCA will affect stablecoins, their issuers, and the crypto exchanges that facilitate their use, particularly focusing on asset-referenced tokens (ART) and e-money tokens (EMT).

Overview of MiCA

Infographic summarizing MiCA Regulation with the EU flag and cryptocurrency symbols.

The MiCA Regulation is a landmark legislative framework established by the European Union to regulate the crypto-asset market comprehensively. It aims to provide legal certainty, promote innovation, ensure consumer protection, and maintain financial stability within the EU. For more general information about MiCA check our comprehensive overview here: LINK.

Purpose and Scope

MiCA’s primary purpose is to create a uniform regulatory environment across the EU for crypto-assets not covered by existing financial services legislation. This includes defining and categorizing various types of crypto-assets, setting out rules for their issuance and trading, and specifying the responsibilities and obligations of market participants.

Understanding Stablecoins under MiCA

Comparison chart showing types of stablecoins under MiCA: Asset-Referenced Tokens (ART) and E-money Tokens (EMT), with icons for fiat currency and basket of assets.

Definition of Stablecoins

Stablecoins are a type of crypto-asset designed to maintain a stable value relative to a reference asset, typically a fiat currency like the US Dollar, Euro or a basket of assets. Their stability is achieved through mechanisms such as asset backing.

Types of Stablecoins

Under MiCA, stablecoins can be classified into two main categories:

  • Asset-Referenced Tokens (ART): Tokens linked to a basket of assets, including commodities, fiat currencies, or a combination thereof.
  • E-money Tokens (EMT): Tokens that reference a single fiat currency and are considered electronic money.

Asset-Referenced Tokens (ART) and E-money Tokens (EMT)

Differences Between ART and EMT

The key distinction between ART and EMT lies in their reference assets. ARTs are linked to multiple assets, which can include both fiat and non-fiat assets, while EMTs are directly tied to a single fiat currency.

Classification Criteria

To determine whether a stablecoin falls under ART or EMT, MiCA considers the nature of the reference assets and the stabilization mechanism used. This classification affects the regulatory requirements and obligations imposed on the issuers.

Public Offering and Admission to Trading of Asset-Referenced Tokens (ART)

Image depicting the licensing process for public offering and trading of ART, featuring license document, trading platform, and security symbols.

Who can make a public offer on ART?

In general, the public offering and trading application for ART tokens is primarily restricted to issuers that are either credit institutions or EU-based entities with authorization under MiCAR. However, there is an exception for issuers with low trading volumes or those targeting ART public offerings to qualified investors. In the very few cases where no authorization will be required, the issuer will still have to submit a white paper to the regulatory authority having jurisdiction over its headquarters.

Licensing Requirements

Illustrated checklist of key obligations for ART issuers, including fair conduct, white paper requirements, marketing rules, and own funds requirements.

To make a public offering or admit ART to trading, issuers must obtain a license. This process ensures that only compliant and trustworthy issuers participate in the market.

Application for Authorization

The application for authorization must include detailed internal documentation about the issuer, including information on governance, risk management, and the safeguards in place to protect token holders. The detailed scope of such a license application is described in Article 18 of the MiCA.

Internal Documentation and Safeguards

Issuers must provide comprehensive documentation demonstrating their ability to manage the ART effectively and safeguard the interests of token holders. This includes details on the stabilization mechanism, asset reserve management, and risk mitigation strategies.

Obligations of Issuers of Asset-Referenced Tokens (ART)

Fair, Honest, and Professional Conduct

ART issuers must conduct their activities in a fair, honest, and professional manner. This includes ensuring transparency and fairness in all dealings and maintaining high ethical standards. While this is a fairly general requirement, it provides a starting point for subsequent obligations – equal and fair treatment of token holders must be an overriding value in the issuer’s business.

White Paper Requirements

Issuers are required to publish a comprehensive white paper detailing critical information about the ART. This document must include details about the issuer, the project, the technology, and the associated risks.

Marketing Material Rules

Any marketing materials must be clear, fair, and not misleading. They should provide a balanced view of the potential benefits and risks associated with the ART.

Information Disclosure Obligations

Issuers must keep token holders informed about the number of tokens in circulation, their value, and the structure of the asset reserve. This ongoing disclosure ensures transparency and helps maintain trust in the ART.

Complaint Handling Procedures

A formal procedure for handling complaints must be in place, ensuring that token holders can raise concerns and have them addressed promptly and effectively.

Conflict of Interest Management

Issuers must identify, disclose, manage, and prevent conflicts of interest to protect the interests of token holders and ensure the integrity of the market.

Own Funds Requirements

Issuers must maintain sufficient own funds to cover potential losses. This requirement ensures financial stability and includes maintaining funds equal to the highest of the following:

  • EUR 350,000
  • 2% of the average amount of asset reserves
  • One-fourth of the previous year’s fixed indirect costs

Responsibility for the Information Contained in the White Paper

Flag of European Union with indication of different types of cryptoassets.

Importance of Accurate Information

The white paper is a critical document that provides detailed information about the ART. It must be accurate, clear, and comprehensive to ensure that token holders can make informed decisions.

Liability for Misleading Information

If the white paper is incomplete, unreliable, unclear, or misleading, the issuer and members of its governing bodies are fully liable for any losses suffered by token holders. This liability underscores the importance of transparency and accuracy. This responsibility cannot be excluded.

Impact on E-money Tokens (EMT)

EMT tokens are subject to even stricter regulations than Asset-Referenced Tokens. While entities other than credit institutions can also be issuers of ARTs, in terms of EMTs, MiCA only allows credit institutions and electronic money institutions as EMT issuers.

EMT Specific Obligations

EMT issuers face specific regulatory obligations under MiCA, including requirements for capital reserves, risk management, and ongoing reporting. These measures ensure that EMTs are stable and trustworthy.

Regulatory Compliance

EMT issuers must comply with stringent regulatory standards, including those related to anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT). These requirements help maintain the integrity and security of the financial system.

Implications for Crypto Exchanges

Visual representation of responsibilities and requirements for crypto exchanges under MiCA, with icons for verification, monitoring, and compliance checks.

Exchange Responsibilities

Crypto exchanges that list ARTs and EMTs must ensure compliance with MiCA regulations. This includes verifying the licenses of issuers, monitoring trading activities, and implementing robust AML and CFT measures

Currently, there is a fierce discussion in the cryptocurrency exchange community regarding the listing of so-called “unauthorized stablecoins”, i.e. Tether (USDT). The Binance exchange, for example, has published its stance on the restrictions placed on EEA citizens in this regard. At present, however, it is uncertain what approach EU regulators will take in this regard.

Listing Requirements

Currently, the safe approach is advised – exchanges must adhere to specific listing requirements for ARTs and EMTs, ensuring that only compliant tokens are available for trading. This helps protect investors and maintain market integrity.

Challenges and Opportunities

Compliance Costs

Compliance with MiCA regulations can be costly for issuers and exchanges. These costs include administrative expenses, legal fees, and the implementation of robust compliance systems.

Market Opportunities

Despite the challenges, MiCA also presents significant opportunities. Regulatory clarity can attract institutional investors, enhance market confidence, and promote the growth of the crypto-asset market in the EU.

Future of Stablecoins in the EU

Regulatory Evolution

MiCA represents the beginning of a comprehensive regulatory framework for crypto-assets. As the market evolves, regulations are likely to be refined and expanded to address new challenges and opportunities. Most of the EU countries, including Poland, are currently working on adopting their own crypto regulations. The MiCA sets the general legal outline for the cryptocurrency market in the EU, but it is national regulations that will detail the application of these rules in each country.

Market Predictions

The introduction of MiCA is expected to boost the credibility and adoption of stablecoins in the EU. By providing a clear regulatory framework, MiCA can help foster innovation and growth in the crypto-asset market.


MiCA Regulation marks a significant milestone in the regulation of crypto-assets within the EU. By setting out comprehensive rules for the issuance and trading of stablecoins, MiCA aims to foster a transparent, stable, and secure crypto-asset market. For issuers and crypto exchanges, compliance with these regulations presents both challenges and opportunities. As the market evolves, MiCA will likely continue to adapt, supporting the growth and maturation of the crypto-asset industry in the European Union.


You should keep in mind that every situation is different and requires proper analysis. The information contained in this article is not legal advice and the author is not responsible for decisions based on it.

MiCA (Markets in Crypto Assets) Regulation is an EU legislative framework aimed at regulating the crypto-asset market to ensure stability, transparency, and investor protection.

MiCA classifies stablecoins as either Asset-Referenced Tokens (ART) or E-money Tokens (EMT) based on their reference assets and stabilization mechanisms.

ART issuers must conduct activities fairly, publish a comprehensive white paper, follow marketing rules, disclose information to token holders, handle complaints, manage conflicts of interest, and maintain sufficient own funds.

EMTs are regulated with specific obligations including capital reserves, risk management, and ongoing reporting to ensure stability and compliance with AML and CFT standards.

Crypto exchanges must ensure compliance with MiCA regulations, verify issuer licenses, monitor trading activities, and adhere to listing requirements for ARTs and EMTs.

MiCA is expected to enhance the credibility and adoption of stablecoins in the EU, promoting market growth and innovation through a clear regulatory framework.


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